RSS

Using Rigid Motions for Parallel Lines Angle Proofs

CCSS-M.G-CO.C.9. Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.

After proving that vertical angles are congruent, we turned our attention towards angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal.

My students come to high school geometry having experience with angle measure relationships when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. But they haven’t thought about why.

We make sense of Euclid’s 5th Postulate (wording below from Cut the Knot):

If a straight line crossing two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if extended indefinitely, meet on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles.

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We use dynamic geometry software to explore Parallel Lines and Transversals:

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And then traditionally, we have allowed corresponding angles congruent when parallel lines are cut by a transversal as the postulate in our deductive system. It makes sense to students that the corresponding angles are congruent. Then once we’ve allowed those, it’s not too bad to prove that alternate interior angles are congruent when parallel lines are cut by a transversal.

But we wonder whether we have to let corresponding angles in as a postulate. Can we use rigid motions to show that the corresponding angles are congruent?

One student suggested constructing the midpoint, X, of segment BE. Then we created a parallel to lines m and n through X. That didn’t get us very far in showing that the corresponding angles are congruent. (image on the top left)

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Another student suggested translating line m using vector BE. So we really translated more than just line m. We really translated the upper half-plan formed by line m. We used took a picture of the top part of the diagram (line m and above) and translated it using vector BE. We can see in the picture on the right, that m maps to n and the transversal maps to itself, and so we conclude (bottom left image) that ∠CBA is congruent to ∠DEB: if two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the corresponding angles are congruent.

Once corresponding angles are congruent, then proving alternate interior (or exterior) angles congruent or consecutive interior (or exterior) angles supplementary when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal follows using a mix of congruent vertical angles, transitive and/or substitution, Congruent Supplements.

But can we prove that alternate interior angles are congruent when parallel lines are cut by a transversal using rigid motions?

Several students suggested we could do the same translation (translating the “top” parallel line onto the “bottom” parallel line). ∠2≅∠2’ because of the translation (and because they are corresponding), and we can say that ∠2’≅∠3 since we have already proved that vertical angles are congruent. ∠2≅∠3 using the Transitive Property of Congruence. We conclude that when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, alternate interior angles are congruent.

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Another team suggested constructing the midpoint M of segment XY (top image). They rotated the given lines and transversal 180˚ about M (bottom image). ∠2 has been carried onto ∠3 and ∠3 has been carried onto ∠2. We conclude that when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, alternate interior angles are congruent.

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Another team constructed the same midpoint as above with a line parallel to the given lines through that midpoint. They reflected the entire diagram about that line, which created the line in red. They used the base angles of an isosceles triangle to show that alternate interior angles are congruent.

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Note 1: We are still postulating that through a point not on a line there is exactly one line parallel to the given line. This is what textbooks I’ve used in the past have called the parallel postulate. And we are postulating that the distance between parallel lines is constant.

Note 2: We haven’t actually proven that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent. But students definitely know it to be true from their work in middle school. The proof is coming soon.

Note 3: Many of these same ideas will show that consecutive (or same-side) interior angles are supplementary. We can use rigid motions to make the images of two consecutive interior angles form a linear pair.

After the lesson, a colleague suggested an Illustrative Mathematics task on Congruent angles made by parallel lines and a transverse, which helped me think through the validity of the arguments that my students made. As the journey continues, I find the tasks, commentary, and solutions on IM to be my own textbook – a dynamic resource for learners young and old.

 
 

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Vertical Angles Are Congruent

CCSS-M.G-CO.C.9. Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.

How do we know that vertical angles are congruent, other than “my teacher told me”, or “the dynamic geometry software convinces me”. (Even though we did let our dynamic geometry software convince us, as most students had not before seen measured vertical angles move.)

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Students worked individually first. I monitored their work.

How many times have you heard a student say that they don’t know where to start when writing a proof?

Can the leveled learning progression that Jill Gough (@jgough) and I have written for construct a viable argument and critique the reasoning of others help?

SMP3 #LL2LU

What information is given (or implied) in the diagram?

One student marked given information on the diagram so that she could understand it.

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Another student is on her way to establishing given information and is working on communicating why her conjecture must be true.

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Another student uses his given information and can get to m∠2=m∠4 but should probably show that m∠2+m∠3=m∠3+m∠4 more directly.

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Without realizing it, another student is on her way to establishing the Congruent Supplements Theorem. We can see from her work that she used some angle measures to make sense of why vertical angles have to be congruent.

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And another student with a “congruent supplements” argument but not written exactly the same way.

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So 1 of the 31 students suggested that vertical angles are congruent because of a reflection.

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What information do we need to know to define a reflection?

An object and a line.

So about what line are you reflecting ∠2 or ∠4 to show that the figures are congruent?

By the time I had made it around the room again, TL had decided that the angles should be reflected about the angle bisector of ∠3 and ∠1.

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When we were ready for the whole class discussion, we started with the progression of traditional Euclidean proofs – letting each student I called on adding a bit more to the argument. Then we considered TL’s proof with rigid motions.

His argument makes sense to the class – and in fact if we test the conjecture using technology we can see that it is true:

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But I wonder how we can prove the angle bisector of ∠1 is collinear with the angle bisector of ∠3 without technology. Maybe an indirect proof would work?

So is there another rigid motion that would let us show the congruence of vertical angles?

A rotation?

A rotation of what object about what point using how many degrees?

And so, together, we came up with the following argument to show that vertical angles are congruent using a rotation.

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And so the journey continues … learning more about transformational geometry every day from my students, who see geometry unfold differently than I, because their study of geometry started with rigid motions.

 
7 Comments

Posted by on November 18, 2014 in Angles & Triangles, Geometry, Rigid Motions

 

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Angle Bisection and Midpoints of Line Segments

As we finished Unit 2 on Tools of Geometry this year, I looked back at Illustrative Mathematics to see if a new task had been posted that we might use on our “put it all together” day before the summative assessment.

I found Angle Bisection and Midpoints of Line Segments.

I had recently read Jessica Murk’s blog post on an introduction to peer feedback, and so I decided to incorporate the feedback template that she used with the task.

The task:

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What misconceptions do you anticipate that students will have while working on this task?

 

What can you find right about the arguments below? What do you question about the arguments below?

Student A:

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Student B:

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Student C:

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Student D:

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Student E:

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Student F:

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Student G:

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Student H:

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Student I:

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Student J:

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The misconception that stuck out to me the most is that students didn’t recognize the difference between parts (a) and (b). I’ve wondered before whether we should still give students the opportunity to recognize differences and similarities between a conditional statement, its converse, inverse, contrapositive, and biconditional. We decided as a geometry team to continue including some work on building our deductive system using logic, even though our standards don’t explicitly include this work. We know that our standards are the “floor, not the ceiling”. We did this task before our work on conditional statements in Unit 3, and so students didn’t realize that, essentially, one statement was the converse of the other. Which means that what we start with (our given information) in part (a) is what we are trying to prove in part(b). And vice versa.

The feedback that students gave was tainted by this misconception.

Another misconception I noticed more than once is that while every point on an angle bisector is equidistant from the sides of the angle, students carelessly talked about the distance from a point to a line, not requiring the length of the segment perpendicular from the point to the line and instead just noting that that the lengths of two segments from two lines to a point are equal.

It occurred to me mid-lesson that maybe we should look at some student work together to give feedback. (This happened after I saw the “What he said” feedback given by one of the students.)

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I have the Reflector App on my iPad, but between the wireless infrastructure in my room for large files like images and my fumbling around on the iPad, it takes too long to get student work displayed on the board. A document camera would be helpful. But I don’t have one. And I’m not sure how I’d get the work we do through the document camera into the student notes for the day. So I actually did take a picture or too, use Dropbox to get the pictures from my iPad to my computer, and then displayed them on the board using my Promethean ActivInspire flipchart so that we could write on them. And then a few of those were so light because of the pencil (and/or maybe lack of confidence that students had while writing) that the time spent wasn’t helpful for student learning.

Looking back at Jessica’s post, I see that her students partnered to give feedback, since they were just learning to give feedback. That might have helped some, but I’m not sure that would have “fixed” this lesson.

So while I can’t say with confidence that this was a great lesson, I can say with confidence that next year will be better. Next year, I’ll give students time to write their own arguments, and then I’ll show them some of the arguments shown here and ask them to provide feedback together to improve them. Maybe next year, too, I’ll add a question to the opener that gives a true conditional statement and a converse and ask whether the true conditional statement implies that the converse must be true, just so they have some experience with recognizing the difference between conditional statements and converses before we try this task.

And so the journey continues, this time with gratefulness for “do-overs”.

 

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Proving Triangles Congruent – SAS

CCSS-M. G-CO.B.8. Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

This standard made me realize that the textbooks I had used for a long time allowed the ASA, SAS, and SSS Triangle Congruence Theorems into our deductive system as postulates. We’ve always proved SAA and HL, but for some reason I thought the others were in the back of the book in a section of more challenging proofs of theorems. (I at least knew that the proofs weren’t left as an “exercise” for students at the end of the section on congruent triangles.)

SAS

How can we use rigid motions to show that SAS always works?

Here is one student’s suggestion.

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We’ve mapped ∆ABC to ∆DEF with C to F using vector CF, and rotating ∆A’B’C’ about F using angle C’A’D will map one triangle on top of the other. But have we used the given SAS? We know that ∠B≅∠E, not that ∠C≅∠F.

Here is another student’s suggestion.

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Once you’ve mapped C to F using vector CF, the student suggests rotating the new triangle 180˚ about C.

We know that using dynamic geometry software doesn’t prove our results for us.

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But using dynamic geometry software does help convince us that we are proving the right thing. I cannot remember where I recently read (a Tweet? a blog post?) that students need to be convinced a statement is true before they will expend effort proving it. It takes a lot of Math Practice 3 for us to make it through explanations for why SSS, SAS, and ASA provide sufficient information for proving triangles congruent.

We can use a translation and a rotation, but we need to map ∆ABC to ∆DEF with B to E using vector BE. We know that ∆A’B’C’ is congruent to ∆ABC because a translation preserves congruence.

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Then what rotation will ensure that ∠B’ maps onto ∠E?

Rotating ∆A’B’C’ about E using angle C’EF will leave E=B’=B’’. B’’C’’=EF because a rotation preserves congruence. A”B”=DE because a rotation preserves congruence, and ∠B≅∠E because a rotation preserves congruence.

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If the given triangles do not have the same orientation, a reflection will be necessary, which could then be followed by a translation and/or a rotation as needed. Note: I’ve recently seen different interpretations of “orientation”. We say two figures have the same orientation if the clockwise order of the vertices is the same.

Even if the triangles do have the same orientation, a reflection or sequence of reflections can be used.

Since EF=EC’, E is on the perpendicular bisector of C’F. Reflecting ∆A’B’C’ about the perpendicular bisector of segment C’F will leave E=B’=B’’ since a point on the line of reflection will be its own image.

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Since ∠DEF≅∠C’EA’ and EA’=ED, A’ and D will also have to coincide after the reflection about the perpendicular bisector of C’F.

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Thus, ∆ABC≅∆A’B’C’≅∆DEF.

Thinking through the proofs of SSS and SAS make our traditional congruent triangle problems look like a waste of time.

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Can we show that the two triangles are congruent?

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Students look at this and immediately see that one triangle is a rotation of the other 180˚ about the midpoint of segment AC.

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Students look at this problem and see the same rigid motion to prove congruence.

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And another, except that this time, someone initially suggested a reflection about segment AC.

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Can we recover showing congruence from the initial reflection?

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Of course … another reflection about the perpendicular bisector of segment AC shows the given triangles congruent.

And then we think about why that works.

As the journey continues, I am grateful for standards that push my students and me to think outside our comfort zone, giving all of us the opportunity to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

Resources:

From Illustrative Mathematics, Why does SAS work?

Usiskin, Peressini, Marchisotto, Stanley. Mathematics for High School Teachers: An Advanced Perspective, Pearson 2003.

 
7 Comments

Posted by on November 15, 2014 in Angles & Triangles, Geometry, Rigid Motions

 

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Proving Segments Congruent First

CCSS-M.G-CO.B.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

Proving triangle congruence from rigid motions has been one of our most challenging new standards. Which is exciting for me as a teacher, because I’m always up for learning about something that all of the textbooks from which I’ve taught geometry have let slide into our deductive system as postulates with no need of proof.

SAS

SSS

So after two years of teaching these standards, it occurred to me that maybe we shouldn’t start with proving triangle congruence using rigid motions. Instead, why don’t we see what happens when we start with two segments.

What set of rigid motions will show that segment AB is congruent to segment CD?

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Students started creating a plan (sequence of rigid motions) on paper. But before we moved to the technology to test the plans, we talked about attend to precision. Instead of saying that you’ll use a translation and a rotation, let’s be specific about what translation and what rotation. A translation of what segment by what vector? A rotation of what segment about what point using what angle measure?

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I began to see the specifics on paper, but while students were pretty confident about the translations they had named, they were not totally confident about the rotations they had named. We needed our technology to help us see.

One team translated segment AB using vector BC.

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Then they rotated segment A’B’ about B’ using angle A’B’D.

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We can see that it works: the blue pre-image is now black. And we can move the original segment to see that it sticks.

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Did this team prove that segment AB is congruent to segment CD? Or did they prove that segment AB is congruent to segment DC? Does it matter?

How many times have we told students that saying segment AB is congruent to segment CD is the same thing as saying that segment AB is congruent to segment DC? It occurred to me in the midst of this lesson that we have actually shown why those endpoints are interchangeable in our congruence statement for segments.

Another team used a translation (segment AB using vector BD) and was trying to use a reflection. When I discussed their work with them, they said, “we know where to draw the line, but we don’t know how to describe it”.

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That team presented their work to the class using Live Presenter.

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They drew in a line and reflected segment A’B’ about the line.

 

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It didn’t work, but they moved the line into the right place.

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So what’s significant about the line of reflection that works?

Someone in the class suggested that it’s the angle bisector of angle DCB”.

Is it?

We don’t have to wonder. We can verify using our Angle Bisector tool.

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What else is significant about the line?

This year in geometry we are often going to have to see what isn’t pictured (look for and make use of structure).

What if we draw in the auxiliary segment B’D? What else is significant about the line of reflection?

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It’s the perpendicular bisector of segment B’D. And again, we don’t have to wonder. We can verify using our Perpendicular Bisector tool.

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Can you show that segment AB is congruent to segment CD using only reflections?

We left this exercise for Problem Solving Points, as of course by now we were running out of class time.

One student shared her work with me the next day.

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And the next.

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We still have work to do. But that’s good … this was the first week of school.

We did this task at my CMC-S session recently, and I asked about using at least one reflection since, like my students, most everyone translated and then rotated.

I was expecting to hear: Reflect segment AB about the perpendicular bisector of segment AC.

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Then reflect segment A’B’ about the perpendicular bisector of segment A’D.

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Some day I’m going to learn to not be surprised by solutions that are different from mine. One of the participants suggested extending lines AB and CD until they meet at point I. Then reflecting segment AB about the angle bisector of angle BIC. Then they translated segment A’B’ using vector B’C. Several weren’t satisfied with proving segment AB congruent to segment DC, so we noted that we could reflect segment B’’A’’ about its perpendicular bisector to show that segment AB is congruent to segment CD.

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Another participant asked whether students had been confused moving into proving triangles congruent by changing the order of the vertices, since we can’t do that in a congruence statement. We did this at the beginning of the rigid motions unit, and I didn’t notice any issues moving into congruence statements for triangles where the order of the vertices matters.

And so the journey continues … every once in a while figuring out a task that will help us along the way towards meeting our learning goals.

 
2 Comments

Posted by on November 9, 2014 in Geometry, Rigid Motions

 

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Productive Struggle: The Law of Sines

NCTM’s Principles to Actions suggests eight Mathematics Teaching Practices for teachers. One of them is to support productive struggle in learning mathematics. The executive summary states: “Effective teaching of mathematics consistently provides students, individually and collectively, with opportunities and supports to engage in productive struggle as they grapple with mathematical ideas and relationships.”

What does productive struggle look like? What does it sound like?

I saw a glimpse of what productive struggle looks like yesterday. I get to share a room with a teacher (who happens to be a former student of mine), and so I listen with one ear when I’m in the room working at my desk during her Precalculus class. The lesson was on the Law of Sines, but Trisha didn’t tell the students from the beginning that was the learning goal. Instead, the students focused on the math practice make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

She presented a situation. And the students made assumptions and asked questions.

One I remember hearing was “I guess we can’t just use a measuring tape?”

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Then she asked them to solve the problem.

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And so they did. These students didn’t balk at the task. They all worked. They didn’t even talk very much at first … you could hear them thinking in the silence that encompassed the room. That’s when I looked over and realized that I was seeing productive struggle in action. Productive struggle isn’t always quiet, but it definitely started that way for these students. Eventually, students listened to Ain’t No (River Wide) Enough while they worked.

When solving the non-right triangle without knowing the Law of Sines, the students used another Math Practice – look for and make use of structure – to draw auxiliary lines. Some drew an altitude for the given triangle to decompose it into two right triangles. Some composed the given triangle into a right triangle.

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Trisha collected evidence of what students could do using a Quick Poll.

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So if we are given one side length and two angle measures of a triangle, is there a faster way to get to the other side?

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More productive struggle … the numbers are now gone, students are reasoning abstractly to make a generalization.

And they did.

And they derived the Law of Sines in the meantime.

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How often do we give our students a chance to engage in productive struggle? In how many classrooms is the Law of Sines just given to students to use, devoid of giving students the opportunity to “grapple with mathematical ideas and relationships”?

When I discussed what I saw with Trisha, she noted that last year, only a few of the students in her class successfully solved the triangle prior to learning about the Law of Sines. This year, all of them tried and most of them succeeded. These are the students with whom we started CCSS Geometry year before last. These are the students who have been learning high school math with a focus on the Math Practices. These are students who are becoming the mathematically proficient students that we want them to be. Because we are letting them. As the journey continues, we are learning to leave the front of the classroom behind so that we can support productive struggle in learning mathematics.

 
1 Comment

Posted by on November 6, 2014 in Geometry, Trigonometry

 

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Systems of Equations – Take 3

What do you do with Systems of Equations in a high school Algebra 1 class?

Our students have some experience with systems from grade 8, but not as much as they eventually will with full implementation of our new standards.

NCTM’s Principles to Actions lists Establish mathematics goals to focus learning as one of the Mathematics Teaching Practices. We can tell that having a common language to talk about what we are doing is helping our students communicate to us about what they can and can’t (yet) do.

We started our unit on Creating Equations & Inequalities with the following leveled learning progression and questions:

Level 1: I can determine whether an ordered pair is a solution to a linear equation.

Level 2: I can graph a linear equation y=mx+b in the x-y coordinate plane.

Level 3: I can solve a system of linear equations.

Level 4: I can create a system of equations to solve a problem.

 

NCTM’s Principles to Actions lists Elicit and use evidence of student thinking as one of the Mathematics Teaching Practices. We need to know what students are thinking so that we can move their thinking forward. We created a leveled learning formative assessment so that we could see where students are.

Level 1: I can determine whether an ordered pair is a solution to a linear equation.

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We have this y= Question configured to generate a graph preview. The equations students enter graph as they are typed, so the students are able to check their thinking as they go. (Note that we don’t have to configure the question to graph the equation as it is entered; we are choosing to do so while students are learning.)

The following are the results from one of our Algebra 1 classes. This is my favorite question.

How can we use the equation to know whether it contains the point (2,3)?

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How can we use the graph to know whether it contains the point (2,3)?Screen Shot 2014-11-05 at 2.36.56 PM

What happens when we give students a point & ask them to create two equations that contain the point?

Do they know that they are creating a system?

Does it help them to know that eventually we will give them the equations and ask them for the point?

 

Level 2: I can graph a linear equation y=mx+b in the x-y coordinate plane.

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And results from the second question:

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Level 3: I can solve a system of linear equations.

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What’s significant about the green point?

What does it have to do with the given equations?

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At least half of our students don’t yet understand what the solution is.

 

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And only a very few are able to solve the system from the question on 3.3, which is okay. This is the first day of the unit. We have the information we need to know how to proceed with the lesson.

 

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I wrote about some of the tasks we used on the first two days of the unit here.

On the third day, we tried Dueling Discounts from Dan Meyer’s 101 Questions, which went better than Dan’s Internet Plans Makeover.

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And more:

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Maybe it’s time to generalize our results?

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On the last day we tried Candy & Chips from 101 Questions, which also went well.

NCTM’s Principles to Actions lists Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding as one of the Mathematics Teaching Practices. We know we aren’t there yet, but we are definitely making progress as the journey continues …

 
 

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